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 charlss dickens I

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عدد الرسائل : 114
العمر : 25
رقم العضوية : 45
تاريخ التسجيل : 26/01/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: charlss dickens I   الثلاثاء يناير 27, 2009 12:52 pm

), Charles John Huffam Dickens, FRSA (IPA: /ˈtʃɑːlz ˈdɪkɪnz/; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870), pen-name "Boz", was one of the most popular English novelists of the Victorian era, as well as a vigorous social campaigner.

Critics George Gissing and G. K. Chesterton championed Dickens' mastery of prose, his endless invention of unique, clever personalities, and his powerful social sensibilities, but fellow writers such as George Henry Lewes, Henry James, and Virginia Woolf faulted his work for sentimentality, implausible occurrences, and grotesque characterizations.[1]

The popularity of Dickens' novels and short stories has meant that they have never gone out of print.[2][3] Many of Dickens' novels first appeared in periodicals and magazines in serialized form—a popular format for fiction at the time—and, unlike many other authors who completed entire novels before serial production commenced, Dickens often composed his works in parts, in the order in which they were meant to appear. Such a practice lent his stories a particular rhythm, punctuated by one minor "cliffhanger" after another, to keep the public looking forward to the next installment.[4]

Contents [hide]
1 Life
1.1 Early years
1.2 Journalism and early novels
1.3 Middle years
1.4 Rail accident and last years
2 Literary style
2.1 Characters
2.2 Episodic writing
2.3 Social commentary
2.4 Literary techniques
2.5 Autobiographical elements
3 Legacy
4 Name 'Dickens'
5 Adaptations of readings
6 Museums and festivals
7 Other memorials
8 Notable works by Charles Dickens
8.1 Novels
8.2 Short story collections
8.3 Selected non-fiction, poetry, and plays
9 Notes
10 References
11 External links



Life

Early years
Charles Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, in Landport, Portsmouth, in Hampshire, the second of eight children to John Dickens (1786–1851), a clerk in the Navy Pay Office at Portsmouth, and his wife, Elizabeth (née Barrow, 1789–1863).[5] When he was five, the family moved to Chatham, Kent. In 1822, when he was ten, the family relocated to 16 Bayham Street, Camden Town, in London.


Ordnance Terrace, Chatham - Dickens's home from 1817 to 1822Although his early years seem to have been an idyllic time, he thought himself then as a "very small and not-over-particularly-taken-care-of boy".[6] He spent time outdoors, but also read voraciously, with a particular fondness for the picaresque novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding. He talked, later in life, of his extremely poignant memories of childhood, and of his continuing photographic memory of the people and events that helped to bring his fiction to life. His family's early, moderate wealth provided the boy Dickens with some private education at William Giles' school, in Chatham. This time of prosperity came to an abrupt end, however, when his father, after having spent beyond his means in entertaining, and in retaining his social position, was imprisoned at Marshalsea debtor's prison. Shortly afterwards, the rest of his family (except for Charles, who boarded nearby), realizing no other option, joined him in residence at Marshalsea.[citation needed] This provided the setting of one of his works, 'Little Dorrit' in which the title character's father was imprisoned
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