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 sharlock holmes

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عدد الرسائل : 114
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تاريخ التسجيل : 26/01/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: sharlock holmes   الخميس فبراير 05, 2009 2:53 pm

This article is about Arthur Conan Doyle's fictional detective. For other uses, see Sherlock Holmes (disambiguation).
Sherlock Holmes

A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891
Created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Episode count Four novels
Fifty-six short stories
Arguable others
Information
Gender Male
Specialty Deductive reasoning
Occupation Consulting detective
Family Brother
Nationality English
Sherlock Holmes is a fictional character of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. He is the creation of Scottish-born author and physician Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. A brilliant London-based "consulting detective", Holmes is famous for his intellectual prowess, and is renowned for his skillful use of "deductive reasoning" while using abductive reasoning (inference to the best explanation) and astute observation to solve difficult cases.

Contents [hide]
1 Overview
2 Family and life
3 Personality and habits
3.1 The use of drugs
3.2 Financial affairs
3.3 Different relationships
3.4 Women
4 Detection methods
4.1 Use of weapons and martial arts
4.2 Knowledge and skills
5 Influence
5.1 Holmesian deduction
5.2 Role in the history of the detective story
5.3 An inspiration for scientists
6 Legacy
6.1 Fan speculation
6.1.1 The Great Hiatus
6.2 Societies
6.3 Museums
7 Adaptations
7.1 Canonical adaptations
7.2 Related and derivative works (non-canonical)
8 The Canon
8.1 Novels
8.2 Short stories
8.3 Lists of favourite stories
9 Holmes by other authors
10 References
11 See also
12 Notes
13 External links



[edit] Overview
Conan Doyle wrote four novels and fifty-six short stories that featured Holmes. All but four stories are narrated by Holmes's friend and biographer, Dr. John H. Watson; two are narrated by Sherlock Holmes himself, and two others are written in the third person. The first two stories, short novels, appeared in Beeton's Christmas Annual for 1887 and Lippincott's Monthly Magazine in 1890, respectively. The character grew tremendously in popularity with the beginning of the first series of short stories in The Strand Magazine in 1891; further series of short stories and two serialised novels appeared until 1927. The stories cover a period from around 1878 up to 1907, with a final case in 1914.

Conan Doyle, when asked if there was a real Sherlock Holmes, always maintained that Holmes was inspired by Dr. Joseph Bell, for whom Doyle had worked as a clerk at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. Like Sherlock Holmes, Bell was noted for drawing large conclusions from the smallest observations. Dr. Bell was also interested in crime and assisted the police in solving a few cases.[1][citation needed]

According to one theory, the character of Sherlock Holmes was inspired by Wendell Scherer, described in a 1971 article in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine as a "consulting detective" in a murder case that received a great deal of newspaper attention in England in 1882. [2] However, the London 'Times' online edition has no reference to a Wendell Scherer between 1875 and 1905, and other authorities[who?] suggest different derivations.


[edit] Family and life
An estimate of Holmes's age in the short story "His Last Bow" places his year of birth around 1854, though most say his date of birth was 15 November 1854. Not much is said of Holmes' parents, yet he had an older brother, Mycroft Holmes, a government official, who appears in three stories: "The Greek Interpreter," "The Final Problem," and "The Bruce-Partington Plans." He is also mentioned in a number of others, including "The Empty House." Mycroft had a unique civil service position as a kind of memory-man for all aspects of government policy — a kind of walking database. Mycroft was even more gifted than Sherlock in matters of observation and deduction but he was not a man of action, preferring to spend his time at the Diogenes Club, described as a club for the most un-clubbable men in London.

In The Adventure of the Copper Beeches, Holmes says "I confess that it is not the situation which I should like to see a sister of mine apply for." Watson also comments "And yet he would always wind up by muttering that no sister of his should ever have accepted such a situation." However, this may be a figure of speech, not necessarily having any bearing on whether or not Holmes had a sister.

In "The Greek Interpreter," Holmes also claims that his grandmother was the sister of Vernet, the French artist. Cases such as "The Adventure of the Gloria Scott" and "The Adventure of the Musgrave Ritual" offer a glimpse into Holmes' early years. Holmes first began developing his methods of deduction as a university student, before being inspired by an encounter with the father of one of his classmates to take them up as a profession. According to Holmes, his first cases came from fellow university students such as Reginald Musgrave, before he gained a professional reputation. He would spend the next six years working as a consulting detective, before financial difficulties led him to take Watson as a roommate to help with the rent.

At the beginning of "The Adventure of the Veiled Lodger," Watson states that Holmes "was in active practice for twenty-three years"; during seventeen of these years, Watson "was allowed to cooperate with him and to keep notes of his doings." Historically, Holmes lived from the year 1881 at 221B Baker Street, London (in early notes it was described as being situated at Upper Baker Street), a flat up seventeen steps, where he shared many of his professional years with his good friend Dr. Watson for some time before Watson's marriage in 1887 and after Mrs. Watson's death. The residence was maintained by his landlady, Mrs. Hudson. In almost all of the stories, Holmes is assisted by the practical Watson, who is not only a friend but also his chronicler (his "Boswell"). Most of Holmes's stories are told as narratives, by Watson, of the detective's solutions to crimes brought to his attention by clients. Holmes sometimes criticises Watson for his writings, usually because he relates them as exciting stories rather than as objective and detailed reports focusing on what Holmes regards as the pure "science" of his craft. In three stories (The Sign of Four, A Study in Scarlet, and "The Adventure of the Crooked Man"), Holmes is assisted by a group of street children he calls the Baker Street Irregulars.


[edit] Personality and habits

Monument of Sherlock Holmes in LondonHolmes describes himself and his habits as "Bohemian." In his personal habits, he is very disorganised, as Watson notes in "The Adventure of the Musgrave Ritual," leaving everything from notes of past cases to remains of chemical experiments scattered around their rooms and his tobacco inside a Persian slipper. But this appeared to be more a form of organised chaos; what appeared to be a mess to an outsider made perfect sense to Holmes. Several times throughout the entire series of books Watson commented on Holmes diving among an apparently random mess of papers and producing exactly what he was looking for. Dr. Watson also states in "The Adventure of the Speckled Band" that Holmes is generally late to rise. In A Study In Scarlet, however, Watson states that Holmes would undoubtedly have eaten breakfast and left their apartment before he woke up every morning.

Holmes often went without food during his more intense cases:

“ My friend had no breakfast for himself, for it was one of his peculiarities that in his more intense moments he would permit himself no food, and I have known him to presume upon his iron strength until he has fainted from pure inanition.[3] ”

His "biographer" Watson did not consider as a vice Holmes' habit of smoking cigars, cigarettes, and pipes, nor his willingness to bend the truth and break the law (e.g., lie to the police, conceal evidence, burgle, and housebreak) when it suited his purposes. Holmes and Watson considered such actions justified as done for noble purposes, such as preserving a woman's honour or a family's reputation (this argument is discussed by Holmes and Watson in "The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton").

In the first Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet, Holmes' hands are discoloured with acid stains, and occasionally Holmes uses drops of blood from his fingers for chemical research—such as an experiment to detect dried blood spots months after a crime. Despite this, he is described in The Hound of the Baskervilles as having a "cat-like" love of personal cleanliness. In later stories Holmes does his chemical experiments at 221B Baker Street.


The first appearance of Holmes, 1887Holmes is also proud of being British, as demonstrated by the patriotic "VR" (Victoria Regina—i.e., Queen Victoria) made in bullet pocks in the wall by his gun. He has also carried out counterintelligence work for his government in several cases, most conspicuously in "His Last Bow," set at the beginning of the First World War.

Holmes does have an ego that sometimes seems to border on arrogance; however, his arrogance is justified. He seems to enjoy baffling police inspectors with his superior deductions. However, he is often quite content to allow the police to take the credit for his work, with Watson being the only one to broadcast his own role in the case (in "The Adventure of the Naval Treaty," he remarks that of his last fifty-three cases, the police have had all the credit in forty-nine), although he enjoys receiving praise from personal friends and those who take a serious interest in his work.

Several literary experts are of the opinion that, in the modern age, Holmes would be diagnosed with Aspergers, a form of Autism.


[edit] The use of drugs
Holmes used addictive drugs, including morphine. He most often used cocaine in a seven-percent solution—sometimes habitually—especially when he lacked stimulating cases, despite his disapproval of the use of opium. The philosophy of the time made drug usage legal. Watson disapproved and described this as the detective's "only vice," saying later he "weaned" Holmes off drug use, citing its destructive qualities. Even so, Watson viewed Holmes' drug habit as "dormant" and "not dead, but merely sleeping."[4] At one point Watson actually assumed that Holmes had taken the drug after staying up much of the night.[5]


[edit] Financial affairs
Although he initially needed Watson to share the rent of his comfortable residence at 221B Baker Street, Watson reveals in "The Adventure of the Dying Detective," when Holmes was living alone, that "I have no doubt that the house might have been purchased at the price which Holmes paid for his rooms," suggesting he had developed a good income from his practice, although it is never revealed exactly how much he charges for his services. He does say, in "The Problem of Thor Bridge" that "My professional charges are upon a fixed scale. I do not vary them, save when I remit them altogether..."

This is said in a context where a client is offering to double his fees; however, it is likely that rich clients provided a remuneration greatly in excess of Holmes's standard fee: in "The Adventure of the Final Problem," Holmes states that his services to the government of France and the royal house of Scandinavia had left him with enough money to retire comfortably, while in "The Adventure of Black Peter," Watson notes that Holmes would refuse to help the wealthy and powerful if their cases did not interest him, while he could devote weeks at a time to the cases of the most humble clients. Holmes also tells Watson, in "A Case of Identity," of a golden snuff box received from the King of Bohemia after "A Scandal in Bohemia" and a fabulous ring from the Dutch royal family; in "The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans," Holmes receives an emerald tie-pin from Queen Victoria. Other mementos of Holmes' cases are a gold sovereign from Irene Adler ("A Scandal in Bohemia") and an autograph letter of thanks from the French President and a Legion of Honor for tracking down an assassin named Huret ("The Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez"). In "The Adventure of the Priory School," Holmes "rubs his hands with glee" when the Duke of Holdernesse notes the sum, which surprises even Watson, and then pats the cheque, saying "I am a poor man," an incident that could be dismissed as Holmes's tendency toward ironic humour. Certainly, in the course of his career Holmes had worked for both the most powerful monarchs and governments of Europe (including his own) and various wealthy aristocrats and industrialists, and had also been consulted by impoverished pawnbrokers and humble governesses on the lower rungs of society.

The Victorian class system was much more complex than today's—it would have been degrading to offer a bill to a royal figure, but such a figure might well provide recompense of the equivalent of millions in modern currency. On the other hand, Holmes has been known to charge clients for his expenses, and to claim any reward that might be offered for the solution's problem: he says in "The Adventure of the Speckled Band" that Miss Stoner may pay any expenses he may be put to, and requests that the bank in "The Red-Headed League" remunerate him for the money he spent solving the case. Holmes has his wealthy banker client in "The Adventure of the Beryl Coronet" pay him both for the costs of recovering the stolen gems, and also claims the reward the banker had put for their recovery.


[edit] Different relationships
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